Male factor causes infertility in 30-50% of cases when the expected pregnancy does not occur.
Therefore, the methods for assessing the quality of male germ cells are of particular importance.
The IVF laboratory at ‘Nadezhda’ Hospital performs assessment of male fertility by reporting sperm cells count, motility and morphology (shape and size).
Impairments such as low count or quality (reduced motility), or deformation in the shape of the spermatozoa (morphology) are important, as these reflect the ability of the sperm cells to fertilize an egg properly.
Minor abnormalities in the parameters of the ejaculate can be treated effectively by utilizing various laboratory techniques - removal of the seminal fluid to improve concentration and separation of the most motile sperm population.
After being purified this way, sperm cells are ready to be placed into the uterus through intrauterine insemination (IUI).
In the case of more severe disorders in sperm parameters, applying these methods only is not sufficient.
In case of total concentration of motile sperm cells of less than 15 million cells/ml or in case of normal morphology of less than 4%, assessed by Kruger’s strict criteria, the chances of fertilization are very low, even with an IVF procedure.
A more targeted treatment of male infertility requires consultation with an andrologist and subsequent therapy, which may include:
- hormonal therapy (clomiphene, gonadotropins, corticosteroids, thyroid hormones)
- non-hormonal drug therapy (bromocryptine, antibiotics)
- surgery (varicocelectomy, vasectomy reversal, surgical treatment of undescended testicles, etc.)
- Fertilization with ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
- Testicular sperm extraction (TESE)